1a
  • It does not tackle the problem of debts owed by European countries to the USA.
  • It simply delayed the time for repaying the debts.
  • The USA’s tariffs on European goods meant it was difficult for European countries to export to the USA.
1b
  • Printing of paper money is totally out of control, as shown by the money pouring in torrents off the ‘Billions-Presses’ and by Gutenberg shaking his head and saying he never intended this.
  • Economic situation in Germany is desperate as shown by the hands urgently seeking to grasp the paper money as it pours off the press.

2
Compare
  • French attempt to encourage separatist movements in the Rhineland failed
  • France was damaged by the Ruhr occupation
  • Overall Ruhr occupation was a failure for France (a = neither France of Germany ‘won’, b = France’s ‘dismal’ failure)

Contrast
  • A more optimistic (occupation had some success in extracting materials from the Ruhr)
  • A more optimistic (German gov’t eventually called off passive resistance to French occupation force)
  • A mentions the role of Stresemann
  • B mentions the role of US in mitigating the conflict

3 (Source A)
  • O = Book, Grahman Ross, 1985
  • P = Analyze int’l relations in 1919-45 and inform presumably an academic audience (not a ‘popular’ history book)
  • V =1) British academic, well-researched; 2) 60 years by British historian, retrospective, less likely to be biased
  • L = Not a specialized work on the Ruhr

3 (Source C)
  • O = Correspondence between Lord Curzon and Raymond Poincare, 1923
  • P = Poincare, seeking to defend his policy and to attack the lenient policy of the British toward Germany; Curzon, seeking to attack France’s occupation as illegal, therefore possibly secure France’s withdrawal
  • V = 1) Contemporary source for politician’s’ views; 2) Significant historical figures, provides insight
  • L = 1) Unsure how “candid” these two politicians were because it is unclear whether these were published 2) Correspondence is in August 1923, no insight on its eventual outcome and results (November 1923)

4
Own Knowledge
  • Failure of France to force Germany to comply w/ the ToV
  • Resulted in a search for improved relations (Locarno Treaties in 1925)
  • Ruhr crisis led Hitler to launch a bid for power, Munich Beer Hall Putsch (November 1923)
  • Dawes Plan made Germany reliant on American loans, so Germany was hard hit when Wall Street crashed in 1929
  • Middle-class lost confidence in Weimar Republic because they lost their savings as a result of hyperinflation